By F. J. Boerio, J. L. Koenig (auth.), Clara D. Craver (eds.)
Physical and spectroscopic equipment were used together for characterization of polymers for a minimum of 4 many years. but, new recommendations let more and more sophisticated selection of polymer chemistry and morphol ogy_ The correlation of this data with actual homes of polymers is useful to deliberate synthesis of recent items. the main favorite spectroscopic concepts in the course of the forties and fifties have been infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance and MOssbauer spectroscopy all started making sig nificant contributions to polymer chemistry within the early sixties. nonetheless extra lately fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy became with ease appli cable to polymers and are contributing considerably to the certainty of the connection among polymer constitution and houses. selection of the distribution of monomer se quences by way of molecular measurement has develop into attainable via mixed gel permeation chromatography and spectroscopic research. Fragments of polymers from chemical holiday down or from pyrolysis are extra fractionated and structurally analyzed. the connection among the chemistry of polymers and function could be made up our minds from adjustments in chemical constitution and orientation after curing, degradation, or actual or thermal manipulation of the polymers.
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Extra resources for POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION Interdisciplinary Approaches: Proceedings of the Symposium on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Characterization of Polymers at the Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September 1970
Raman spectrum of polyglycine II (PGII). r v Figure 7. Raman spectrum of N-deuterated polyglycine II. zawa et al (6), who did not calculate the whole dispersion curve, but only the IR active vibrations. In Figure 8, next page, are shown the extended phonon dispersion curves for PGII as we have calculated them. The normal modes of PGII can be classified as either A or E of C3 and are in either case both IR and Raman active. The A modes are at 0=0 and the E modes at 0=2~/3. The observed Raman frequencies assigned to these dispersion curves are indicated by the circles.
SLOANE LONG CHAIN CH 2 COMPOUNDS In the infrared spectra of most organic compounds there are usually a large number of bands in the 1400-700 cm- l region which cannot be readily associated with what are normally considered to be group frequencies. These usually derive from CH twisting and wagging modes as well as coupled -C-C- and other "impure" single bond, stretching vibrations. Since they are often split or shifted in various subtle ways, depending on the exact structure, these bands are generally not very useful in the interpretive sense.
A band appears in the monofilament at 1096 cm- 1 with heating and increases with heating time. There was excellent agreement between the relative Raman intensity of this band and the polymer density as shown in Figure 6. 975. 37 g/cm3 are in good agreement with literature values for amorphous and partially crystalline PET, respectively. One could, of course, extend this range to even higher densities by either lengthening the time or increasing the oil temperature. RAMAN DATA ON POLY(1,4-CYCLOHEXYLENEDlMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Since it appeared that we had a very sensitive measure of "crystallinity" for PET, we decided to investigate a structurally related polyester, poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCHT).
POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION Interdisciplinary Approaches: Proceedings of the Symposium on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Characterization of Polymers at the Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September 1970 by F. J. Boerio, J. L. Koenig (auth.), Clara D. Craver (eds.)