By Cesare Rossi
This e-book describes innovations and designs of historic engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a long time often variety from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from ahead of and after this era. As for the very historical ones, the booklet describes innovations (documented via archaeological unearths customarily from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that typically are little or no identified and occasionally no longer identified in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. for the reason that (unfortunately) many innovations and technological recommendations were conceived ranging from army purposes. The e-book is split into 5 components. the 1st 4 components pertain to sure fields and current innovations as a rule conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and that could be regarded as milestones, each one of their respective box. The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) during which vital options have been conceived additionally in additional fresh centuries. for every of the innovations provided, even the traditional ones of many centuries previous, the authors supply 3 parts of analysis and reference: • Written files (the classics) • Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) • Archaeological findings.
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Extra info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present
Other Roman abaci were made by boards with grooves in which some little stones were placed; in Latin the term “calculus” means little stone, from which word we derive calculus, calculations etc. The Chinese abacus (swanpan) is similar and quite as old as the roman one. It is composed by 20 bamboo sticks (10 in the upper part and 10 in the lower) and the buttons are generally made of ivory. Each of the upper sticks have two buttons as does each of the lower two. The Japanese abacus is similar to the Chinese one but has just one button in the upper sticks.
This device, in the shape that has been just described, was “invented” in the 18th century, that is to say more than 18 centuries after the naval odometer by Vitruvius, and it is clearly much more unsophisticated. The term “log” is still used for mechanical or electrical devices used to measure speed and distances on the sea in more recent times. Before the (very recent) use of the GPS, coastal navigation, both sporting and professional, was effected by log and compass till the present day. At the time of the Roman Empire, navigation was mainly coastal as ships were helped by a wide system of long-range lighthouses.
23°10 35 E) where Elias Stadiatis, 42 m deep, found a large ship that lay wrecked on the sea bed. In the ship, among amphora and other finds, he found something that seemed like a piece of bronze partially covered by calcareous incrustations. ; it was also concluded that it was a Roman or Greek cargo ship headed for Rome that was carrying more than 100 statues similar to others the Romans had brought to Italy after they had conquered Greece. Later the find was brought to the Athens’ Museum where it was not seriously studied until 1928, when the Greek admiral Jean Theophanidis mentioned the find in some articles.
Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present by Cesare Rossi