By Joan Beal
This sequence offers introductions to the most components of English language learn. Volumes hide facets of the background and constitution of the language resembling: syntax, phonology, morphology, local and social version, previous English, heart English, Early sleek English and foreign Englishes.
content material: 1. creation: are neighborhood types doomed?; 2. accessory; three. Dialect I: 'grammar'; four. Dialect II: lexis; five. The Diffusion version; 6. Levelling; 7. neighborhood identification/ groups of perform; eight. Stereotypes; nine. end; 10. Resources.
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Extra resources for An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England
Watt and Milroy (1999) found that, in a study of speech recorded in 1994, only the older, working-class males used /iə/ in the majority of tokens of what Wells (1982) classifies as face vowels. Amongst all other groups, the most frequent variant was /e /, with /ei/ emerging as a minority variant in the speech of some young, middle-class males and females. Watt and Milroy suggest that the younger Tynesiders are signalling that they do not wish to identify with the ‘old-fashioned’ cloth-cap-and-clogs image of their fathers, but still wish to be identified as northerners, so they are assimi- 1085 pages 1-124:Regional Englishes 20 5/10/10 11:50 Page 20 AN INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL ENGLISHES lating their speech to a pan-Northern norm.
Youse, are innovative rather than conservative. g. I’m liking this. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. This is the man what painted my house) Not all of the features identified as ‘Northern’ here are found throughout the North of England. 8, double modals are extremely rare in England, and confined to restricted and recessive use in Tyneside and Northumberland. 5, found in the ‘lower North’ much more than in the far North. With regard to both these features, the dialects of the far North pattern with those of Scotland, which is not surprising given the geographical closeness and contiguity between the two areas.
3. See Beal (1999: 163–71) and Mugglestone (1995: 98–103) for a full account of this. 4. As a speaker of ‘velar nasal plus’, I could not understand why, when I went to university, people found my pronunciation of words such as sing amusing. As far as I was concerned, there was a
An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England by Joan Beal