By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal
Over the final two decades there were a number of technical advances and adjustments within the box of academic and mental checking out. based on Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of surprising advances in ,psychological checking out. Technological growth, theoretical sophistication, and extending professional fessional accountability are all obtrusive within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental trying out, 6th variation. ny: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in issues comparable to merchandise reaction thought, criterion-referenced dimension, generalizability theory,· analy sis of covariance constructions, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and fulfillment assessments are built and evaluated, and that try out ratings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as colossal and critical as they've been, are just a fragment of the most important adjustments within the box of checking out. this present day, for instance, the pc is substantially chang ing the ways that checks are built, administered, and scored. pcs are getting used to manage exams "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run will depend on his or her functionality on prior administered goods within the try out. exams are "adapted" to the power degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter checks with very little loss in dimension precision. desktops also are getting used to shop or financial institution try goods. Later, goods of curiosity may be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.
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Additional resources for Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications
The first involves the preparation of a general description. This description can be a behavioral objective, a detailed description of the objective, or a short cryptic descriptor. Next, a sample test item is prepared. The sample item will reveal the desired format and help to clarify the appropriate domain of test items. The third step is usually the most difficult. It is necessary to specify the content or behaviors included in a domain. Occasionally, for the purpose of clarification, it is also desirable to indicate which content or behaviors are not included in a domain specification.
1979). Issues of validity in measurement for competency-based programs. A. Bunda & J. R. ), Practice and problems in competency-based measurement. Washington, DC: National Council on Measurement in Education, pp. 108-123. - - - - . (1980). Issues of validity for criterion-referenced measures. Applied Psychological Measurement 4:547-561. - - - - . ) (1989). Educational measurement, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. ADVANCES IN CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASUREMENT 41 Livingston, S. A. (1975). A utility-based approach to the evaluation of pass/fail testing decision procedures (Report No.
A test constructed in this way will have maximum discriminating power in the region where decisions are to be made; therefore, more reliable and valid decisions will result. One possible drawback is that scores derived from the test cannot be used to make descriptive statements about examinee levels of performance because test items measuring each objective will not necessarily constitute a representative sample. There is at least one way to make descriptive statements about examinees' level of performance when nonrandom or nonrepresentative samples of test items are chosen: by introducing concepts and models from the field of item response theory (Hambleton, 1989; Hambleton & Swaminathan, 1985).
Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications by Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal