By John Spouge DNV Technica
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Extra info for A Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment for Offshore Installations
Procedural HAZOP - a version of HAZOP applied to safety-critical operations such as drilling, rigmoves, heavy lifts etc. • What-If Analysis - a flexible review technique, which can be applied to any installation, operation or process, to identify hazards. • HAZID - a systematic review of the possible causes and consequences of hazardous events. • Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) - a systematic review of a mechanical system, to evaluate the effects of failures of individual components.
The main differences compared to a HAZOP are: • The discussion proceeds systematically through the installation's modules or operations rather than its individual sub-systems. Guide to Offshore QRA 40 • Guide words are defined in advance, based on the safety objectives for the installation. • Hazard scenarios (equivalent to deviations in a HAZOP) are obtained by combining guide words for the generic hazard, the cause and the consequence. 7. 7 Example HAZID Guide Words GENERIC HAZARD Loss of containment Fire/explosion Mechanical impact Structural failure Transport Diving Natural/environment Simultaneous operations Human error CAUSE General Design/construction Operation/maintenance Simultaneous operations Human error Hardware failure Control system failure Structural failure Loss of containment Blowout Shallow gas etc Impact Ship impact Helicopter impact Dropped load etc Structural failure Weather Earthquake etc CONSEQUENCE Gas & smoke ingress Fire/explosion Loss of buoyancy Loss of position Pollution Structural collapse Safety systems impaired The emphasis of the discussion is on how events could happen, rather than whether they could occur, and on what their consequences would be.
Criteria for valuing environmental damage in monetary terms are not yet agreed. 4 Lifetime Risk Assessment Lifetime risk assessment is the term used here to describe the approach to risk assessment used at the concept selection stage by some companies, which is based not on separate analysis of each hazard but on adding generic risks for various types of worker. Guide to Offshore QRA 26 The methodology is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify staff requirements and worker types over the lifetime of the concept Select fatal accident rates (FARs) for each worker type from generic data Calculate lifetime expected fatality rates Select option with lowest fatality rate Its strengths are: • The methodology is simple and requires only the information likely to be available at concept selection stage.
A Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment for Offshore Installations by John Spouge DNV Technica