By Jeffrey Heath
This article offers grammar in English of a language of the Songhay kin of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. themes contain: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)
The only native examples with final stops or affricates are two cases with b, dob 'attach' and dialectally jab 'punch', both of which are action verbs that perhaps favor CVT shape for sound-symbolic reasons. 4 Syllabic shapes of nonmonosyllabic stems and words Bisyllabic (and longer) stems show somewhat similar patterns. However, they allow a few more possibilities, especially if we lump word-initial, -medial, and -final positions together. '; c) bisyllabic and longer stems include a large number of loans from Arabic, French, and other languages whose syllabic preferences differ from those seen in native Songhay vocabulary; d) geminate stops, nasal-stop clusters, and other word-medial consonant clusters increase the possibilities for syllabic codas of nonfmal syllables.
The slightly irregular [ad&e] from //ay ije// 'my child', via intermediate //ay-yje// or //aj-jje//, may also require such a simplification. Cf. ', arguably still synchronically derivable from //hay-ije//. 3. 1 Contractions involving Imperfective ο The only obligatory contractions of two short vowels into a surface long vowel occur within the cluster of morphemes that precede a verb. The culprit is Impf o (the older form go is preserved in some contexts). This ο combines with a preceding V-final morpheme (usually a subject pronoun, or a subject NP ending in Def di or PI yd) to produce a contracted surface long vowel, as shown in (35).
The preceding vowel may be long or short, yer sometimes also contracts with a preceding aa or oo if the phrasing is fairly tight: goo^ yer^ doo [ged:o:] 'be at our place'. 5. The plural forms of certain bisyllabic pronouns constitute a special case. 1 for a general treatment of personal pronouns. Of interest here are the forms Logo/3ReflPl rjgu-yo - qgi-yoand 3P1F1 qgi-yo. These can be analysed as consisting of Logo/3ReflSg rjgu or 3SgF rjga plus PI yo, but these high-frequency combinations are rather frozen and are vulnerable to contractions.
A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19) by Jeffrey Heath