By Zaira Khalilova.
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Extra info for A grammar of Khwarshi
The high central vowel /i/ is restricted in distribution: it does not occur in CVC syllables in indigenous words. All plain vowels have their long counterparts. Long vowels are always in the stressed positions. There are also distinguished nasalized vowels, with the exception of /I/. Moreover not all long vowels have nasalized counterparts, so there are only four long nasalized vowels, excluding /I/ and /i/. front central back high i / i[ / i I / jk u / u[ / l / l[ mid e / e[ / h / h[ low o / o[ / e / e[ a / a[ / g / g[ All five plain vowels can occur in open and closed syllables.
6. 1. Use of the epenthetic semivowel -y- Vocalic clustering is not allowed, and the epenthetic semivowel -y- is used at a morpheme boundary to avoid hiatus. There is thus the following epenthetic rule: Vi + V2=Vi y V2. g. 2. W’ Use of the epenthetic vowels -i-/-I-/-u- Final consonant clustering is not possible and epenthetic vowels are used with the following structure Ci + C2=Ci EP C2. g. g. g. g. 14 Uday ‘weed’ Uday-i-L ‘weed-EP-INTER’ Uay ‘tea’ Uay-i-S ‘tea-EP-SUB’ The epenthetic vowel -I- is mostly used by the older generation, while the epenthetic vowel -u- is preferred by younger people.
G. 16 w-acaha-w ‘cousin (male)’ y-acaha-y ‘cousin (female)’ q’orola-w ‘widower’ q’orola-y ‘widow’ There is one lexicalized noun q’^emLi ‘relatives’ which does not denote an abstract notion and is assigned to Gender 3. The noun q’^emLi ‘relatives’ is based on the abstract suffix -Li and the noun q’^em ‘head (4)’. 2. Assignment of borrowings Words which are borrowed from other languages exhibit some principles of gender assignment even if not fully productive. Gender 3 includes most loans ultimately from Arabic and Persian that are of early origin such as askar ‘troops, army’, žawab ‘answer’, zaman ‘time’, tarix ‘history’, dunnal ‘life’, q’alam ‘pencil’, ustar ‘craftsman’, ru\ ‘soul’, etc.
A grammar of Khwarshi by Zaira Khalilova.