By David Powell
The layout of computers to be embedded in severe real-time functions is a fancy activity. Such structures mustn't ever merely warrantly to satisfy tough real-time time cut-off dates imposed by way of their actual atmosphere, they have to warrantly to take action dependably, regardless of either actual faults (in undefined) and layout faults (in or software). A fault-tolerance method is crucial for those promises to be commensurate with the protection and reliability specifications of many lifestyles- and mission-critical functions. This publication explains the motivations and the result of a collaborative project', whose target was once to seriously lessen the lifecycle bills of such fault tolerant structures. The end-user businesses partaking during this venture already installation fault-tolerant structures in severe railway, area and nuclear-propulsion functions. notwithstanding, those are proprietary structures whose architectures were adapted to satisfy domain-specific specifications. This has resulted in very high priced, rigid, and infrequently hardware-intensive ideas that, by the point they're built, confirmed and licensed to be used within the box, can already be out-of-date when it comes to their underlying and software program technology.
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Extra info for A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems
3. For each p and q, let Vq be the value receiver p received from receiver q in step 2 of algorithm ZAer-I), or error if a manifest-faulty value was received. Each receiver p calculates the majority value among all non-error values Vq received (at most n-l). If no such majority exists, the receiver uses some arbitrary, but functionally determined value. Note that the number of rounds in algorithm ZA(r) is equal to r+ 1. 4 Properties Interactive consistency requires that the following properties hold: Agreement If receivers p and q are non-faulty, then they agree on the value ascribed to the transmitter.
Model·based analytical evaluation ----- ~oVlJr~ vs/lNls Fault Injection / Main Interactions between Architecture Development and Validation Besides the three main validation components (namely, formal verification, model·based evaluation and fault injection), the figure explicitly identifies the role played by the schedulability analysis method and the supporting tool-set (cf. 2). The figure also depicts the complementarity and relationships among the three validation components. In particular, fault injection (carried out on prototypes) complements the other validation components by providing means for: a) assessing the validity of the necessary assumptions made during formal verification, and b) estimating the coverage parameters included in the analytical models for dependability evaluation.
The following three subsections briefly describe the related validation activities. 1 Formal Verification Formal approaches have been used for specifying and verifying critical dependability mechanisms . We concentrated our effort on four such mechanisms, 20 Introduction and Overview which constitute the basic building blocks of the architecture: a) clock synchronisation, b) interactive consistency, c) fault diagnosis, and d) multi-level integrity. The formal approaches that have been applied include both theorem-proving and model-checking.
A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems by David Powell