By Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier
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Additional resources for A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity
The legacy of the normal forest concept was a strong focus of silvicultural approaches and practices on fully stocked stands, stands with fairly simple structure and composition, intensive thinning practices, and harvest timing determined by productivity measures. Even small-scale harvesting patterns, such as the single-tree or group selection systems (described in detail later), are conceptually based on the normal forest concept (Mantel 1990). These systems were not developed to match the scale of management activities to the scale of ecological functions and processes.
Widespread implementation of strip clearcutting required landscape considerations (to prevent wind damage and facilitate harvesting operations). Cutting units were shaped and spatially and temporally arranged in the landscape to minimize the exposure of forest edges to high-intensity winds (Mantel 1990). Shelterwood System The shelterwood system originated under quite different circumstances than either the clearcut system or the seed-tree system. Shelterwood systems started in lower-elevation, hardwood-dominated forests.
Kellomäki 1998; Fujimori 2001; Nyland 2002). More than any other concept, the stand concept has been widely accepted as a basis for silvicultural decision making. It even encouraged the development of a subdiscipline, stand development (Oliver and Larson 1996), which expanded the stand concept to include dynamic aspects. The notion of “cutting cycle or rotation” is a second example of a longstanding, prominent silvicultural concept that has undergone changes throughout history in response to a variety of external factors.
A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity by Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier