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By Raymond P. Scheindlin

ISBN-10: 0812005473

ISBN-13: 9780812005479

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22) Kho`o`j 5 jaak 5 lin 5 phaj 4. ’ (23) Laaw 2 su`u` 4 khaw 5-niaw 3 kin 3. ’ In (22) the phrase lin 5 phaj 4 ‘play cards’ is a complement of the verb jaak5 ‘want’, but because there is no explicit marking of the fact, it looks like a serial construction. In (23) the word kin3 ‘eat’ is a purposive clause even A first look 19 though it is not marked as such (in fact, the purposive marker phu`a1 ‘in order to, so that’ can be inserted in front of kin3 ‘eat’ with no change of meaning). 8 Multiple pronouns and other systems of address One of the most interesting features of many of the languages of East and Southeast Asia is that aspects of the language structure seem to be specially adapted to allow people to express ‘‘social messages’’, especially messages to do with differences in social standing, respect, deference, and the like.

With the exception of the Karen subgroup, however, they have retained SOV word order, and they usually have postpositions rather than prepositions. 4. Approximate distribution of Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien languages (after Comrie, Matthews, and Polinsky 2003). isolating than neighbouring families in Southeast Asia. Some, such as the Kuki-Chin subgroup of western Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas, have developed person-marking prefixes on the verb. 4 Tai-Kadai The largest language in the Tai-Kadai family (sometimes called simply Tai) is Thai, the national language of Thailand.

It starts a little low, dips even lower, then moves up (hence the label ‘‘falling-rising’’). 2. These are simplified graphs of the pitch over time. The vertical line at the right of each one just serves as a reference for the possible pitch range. Tones can be a problem for writing systems. It isn’t very economical to use two superscript numbers. So for practical purposes various other systems are usually used. The first is just to assign each tone a single identifying number: for example, we could call the 55 tone ‘‘tone 1’’, the 35 tone ‘‘tone 2’’, the 214 tone ‘‘tone 3’’, and the 51 tone ‘‘tone 4’’.

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201 Arabic verbs : fully conjugated in all the forms by Raymond P. Scheindlin

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